literature review on african star apple

Low free fatty acids content is indicative of low enzymatic hydrolysis. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Development and evaluation of African star apple (, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (PubChem CID: 237332), 2,5-Furandione, dihydro-3-methylene (PubChem CID: 75110), 4H-Pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihyro-3, 5-dihydroxy-6-methyl (PubChem CID: 119838). List of various diseases cured by Star Apple. The chemical activation of the pyrolised and powdered Chrysophyllum albidum shell was performed using 0.5M aqueous solutions of each CaCl2, MgCl2, and ZnCl2. Fresh ripped fruits of African Star Apple were bought from some local market sellers at the University of Cape Coast Science market which is located in the Southern part of Ghana. Physical and chemical parameters of the African Star Apple seed oil (Chrysophyllum albidum) are presented in Table 1. Africa Star apple (ASA) remains under-utilized. Rising intake of supplement positively correlated with Hepatoprotective activity. ‎This course is a study of the periods and major genres of African-American Literature – poetry, prose, drama, vernacular tradition, essays, and non-fiction. Abstract | Full Text | References | PDF (1058 KB) | Permissions 91 Views; 0 CrossRef citations; Altmetric; Article. MDA was lower (0.92 ± 0.04nmole/ml) in Rats stressed and fed the FS when compared to exclusively stressed groups (2.28 ± 0.09nmole/ml). The high saponification value suggests the use of the oil in production of liquid soap, shampoos, and lather shaving creams [35, 36]. Similarly, [13] investigated into the extraction and characterisation of the seed oil. The African Star Apples are valuable sources of … The adsorption studies of Methyl orange dye solution of the fruit shell of the Chrysophyllum albidum activated with MgCl2, CaCl2, and ZnCl2 were performed. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. On the basis of the correlation coefficient, the adsorption of Methyl orange dye from solution by shells of Chrysophyllum albidum activated with CaCl2 follows a first-order reaction pathway while the shells activated with MgCl2 and ZnCl2 follows a second-order pathway. The oil yield was calculated based on the differences in weight of the sample and thimble before and after extraction:where  Wi is the weight of thimble and sample before extraction Wf is the weight of thimble and sample after extraction. The refractive index of the extracted oil was 1.464 which agreed with that of 1. 5-Hydroxylmethylfurfural was the dominant Bioactive observed. Methyl orange with a concentration of 0.2mg/L and 0.5mg/L was prepared and used as the adsorbent for this study. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. Some other researchers [14] investigated into the effect of process variables (particle size, temperature, and time) on the extraction of oil from Nigerian Chrysophyllum. Possible bioactives were investigated using Gas-Chromatography Mass-Spectrometry. Extraction and Characterisation of African Star Apple (, Department of Chemistry, Industrial Chemistry Unit, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, Department of Chemistry, Water and Sanitation Unit, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, R% is the percentage recovery of methyl orange from the solution, http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/, J. E. Ehiagbonare, H. I. Onyibe, and E. E. Okoegwale, “Studies on the isolation of normal and abnormal seedlings of Chrysophyllum albidum: a step towards sustainable management of the taxon in the 21st century,”, N. A. Amusa, O. Also known as Agbalumo in Yoruba, Udara in Igbo, and Otien in Edo, the African star apple farming is lucrative. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. ‎Africa is a book of poems where each poem reads like a short story. This was placed in a heating mantle at 65°C and the liquid condensate dripped into the thimble which contained the milled sample. Once again, the cotyledons contained in the african star apple seeds have an anti-hyperglycemia effect that has an effect on the decrease in high … Saponification value (SV) is related to the average molecular mass of fatty acid in the oil sample. B. Adelola, P. A. Aderemi, J. M. Jiya, and O. F. Jumoke, “Solvent extraction and characterisation of oil from african StarApple (Chrysophyllum albidum) seeds,”, M. Umaru, A. G. Isah, M. U. Garba, and U. Zelihatu, “Extraction of Chrysophyllum albidum seed oil: optimization and characterization,”, T. Viraraghvan and M. M. Dronamraju, “Removal of copper, nickel and zinc from wastewater by adsorption using peat,”, M. A. Amer, F. I. Khaili, and A. M. Awwad, “Adsorption of lead, zinc and cadmium ions on polyphosphate-modified kaolinite clay,”, G. Yan and T. Viraraghavan, “Heavy metal removal in a biosorption column by immobilized, M. Dakiky, M. Khamis, A. Manassra, and M. Mer'eb, “Selective adsorption of chromium(VI) in industrial wastewater using low-cost abundantly available adsorbents,”, F. E. Okieimen, E. U. Okundia, and D. E. Ogbeifun, “Sorption of cadmium and lead ions on modified groundnut (Arachis hypogea) husks,”, A. The overall performance of the three shells shows that ZnCl2 performed slightly better than MgCl2 in reducing the concentration of Methyl orange in the solution. At various points of the literature review, key questions will be raised linking the review aspects back to the research problem and sub-problems. The oil extracted from the African Star Apple seeds (Chrysophyllum albidum) with hexane using the soxhlet apparatus was physically and chemically analyzed and gave the following results as presented in Table 1. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. A round bottom flask containing analytical grade N-Hexane (99%) was fitted with a reflux condenser to the top. Development into an acceptable food supplement (FS) with anti-stress potentials has not been explored. This is the adsorption data that was used for this study. . A. Abia, M. Horsfall Jr., and O. Didi, “The use of chemically modified and unmodified cassava waste for the removal of Cd, Cu and Zn ions from aqueous solution,”, R. R. Bansode, J. N. Losso, W. E. Marshall, R. M. Rao, and R. J. Portier, “Pecan shell-based granular activated carbon for treatment of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in municipal wastewater,”, A. H. Mahvi, D. Naghipour, F. Vaezi, and S. Nazmara, “Teawaste as an adsorbent for heavy metal removal from industrial wastewaters,”, O. S. Amuda, O. I. Ojo, and T. I. Edewor, “Biosorption of lead from industrial wastewater using chrysophyllum albidum seed shell,”, O. S. Amuda, T. I. Edewor, T. J. Afolabi, and Y.-T. Hung, “Steam-activated carbon prepared from Chrysophyllum albidum seed shell for the adsorption of cadmium in wastewater: Kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies,”, F. K. Onwu and S. P. I. Ogah, “Studies on the effect of pH on the sorption of cadmium (II), nickel (II), lead (II) and chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions by African white star apple (Chrysophyllum albidium) shell,”, S. E. Adebayo, B. Moreover, in today’s world social media is becoming more and more populate so therefore the rising use of social media is also an opportunity for Apple as it will increase the demand for their digital products such as the iPhone or iPad where users are able to download lots of popular social media apps. Figure 3 shows the linear plot of log( – ) versus t for the Lagrangien pseudo-first-order model and Figure 4 shows the linear plot of t/ versus t for the Lagrangien pseudo-second-order model for reduction of Methyl orange using shells of Chrysophyllum albidum activated with CaCl2, MgCl2, and ZnCl2. Literature in the African continent has its basis mainly in the traditions of South African, Francophone and Anglophone literatures. Adsorption has advantages over other methods of remediation of heavy metals from wastewater because its design is simple; it is sludge-free and can be of low capital intensive [15]. The oil was extracted using hexane with the soxhlet apparatus at a temperature of 65°C for 4 hours. They are known by a variety of different names such as golden-leaf tree, caimito maduraverde in Spain, caimite and caimitier in France and cainito and ajara in Portugal. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to identify the various functional groups present in the oil. The experiment was conducted under room temperature of 25 C. The change in concentration of the dye with time could be seen in the date above. Apple Inc Report contains a full analysis of Apple corporate social responsibility including Apple CSR issues. Generally, the roots, barks, and leaves of Chrysophyllum albidum are widely used as an application to sprains, bruises, and wounds in southern Nigeria [10]. It is the weight (mg) of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the free acid in 1 g of the oil. But how? Africa Review, Volume 12, Issue 2 (2020) Articles . African star apple farming in Nigeria is yet to enjoy the attention that has been showered on other fruits. 1 Information 2 Appearance 3 History 3.1 The Ukumbusho Tradition 3.2 Timon and Pumbaa's Christmas 3.3 The Scorpion's Sting 3.4 Little Old Ginterbong African tar apples are used as a food source, as well as to create paint with. It was further air-dried for 7 days and then oven-dried in a laboratory oven (MMM Medcenter Ecocell 55) at 105°C for 8 hours to reduce the moisture content. 20g of the pyrolised powdered shells was weighed and added to 250ml of the various activation chemical aqueous solutions. The Star Apple is of the family Sapotaceae and relative of the mamey sapote and the green sapote. Chemical activation with CaCl2 seems not to perform as efficient as that of the ZnCl2 and MgCl2 as shown in Figure 2. The physical and chemical properties of the extracted oil data used to support the findings of this study are included within the article. From Figure 2, it is observed that the rate of dye reduction generally increased rapidly within the first two hours of contact time for all three shells with different activation chemicals. Names of Star Apple in various languages of the world are also given. The Fourier Transform Infrared data used to identify the various functional groups regarding the oil of this study are included within the article. Drivers and challenges to people’s empowerment . This complex taste lends itself well when paired in sweet dishes as a dessert or added to a cocktail. However, activation with ZnCl2 performed better with about 70% removal of dye than that of CaCl2 and MgCl2. The tree grows as a wild plant and belongs to the family of Sapotaceae which has up to 800 species and constitutes almost half of the order [1]. The report illustrates the application of the major analytical strategic frameworks in business studies such as SWOT, PESTEL, Porter’s Five Forces, Value Chain analysis, Ansoff Matrix and McKinsey 7S Model on Apple. ( Ronald Wayne. The functional groups identified within the wavelength of 1709 – 1744 cm−1 were compared to oil from Chamomile and Rosemary by Anwer S. El-Badry, and Sameh S. Ali [39] as well as the Corn and Mustard oil to represent C= O ester carbonyl of triglycerides [39]. Researchers suggest that the African star apple fruit also known locally as ‘Alasa’ is an edible fruit of uncommon nutritional value. There are two different varieties of Star Apples one with purple skin and one with green skin. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. . It was however higher than that of Ominyi, Ominyi [31] which was 90.71 mg/KOH/g but lower for Musa, Isah [30] who reported 228.4 mg/KOH/g. The refractive index, viscosity, saponification values, acid value, iodine value, free fatty acid value, specific gravity, and other parameters of the oil were determined using AOAC (2000) [27]. ( Steve Wozniak . From a nutritional perspective, the African star apple is a rich source of calcium, with each serving providing up to 10% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA). The extract seeped through the pores of the thimble and filled a syphon tube and this was allowed to continue for 6 hours. The extract was then heated to recover the solvent with a rotary evaporator (R00102439, 50W/15A) leaving behind the extracted oil. The aim of this research paper is to extract and characterise oil from Chrysophyllum albidum fruit seed from Ghana and use the seed shell as an adsorbent in the removal of methyl orange (dye) from aqueous solutions. This has been worrying me for some time. Saponification value of oil serves as an important parameter in determining the suitability of the oil for soap making [34]. A Nicolet 870 spectrometer which was equipped with a deuterated triglycine sulphate detector was used. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Literature Review For Apple Inc Project. Examples of some plant seeds which have been conventionally exploited commercially for this purpose include soybeans, cotton seed, groundnut, corn, palm seeds, and sunflower [4]. The results showed an average oil yield obtained of 11.6%, specific gravity of 0.92kg/m3, the refractive index of 1.464 at 30°C, an acid value of 7.72 mg KOH/g, a free fatty acid value of 3.16 g/100g, saponification value of 200.56 mg KOH/g, and an iodine value of 70.64 g/100g. Fascinated and intrigued by every word, I found that when I thought I had found a favorite, the next poem was even better! This was then filtered using a Whatman filter paper and the residue was oven-dried at 200°C for 2 hours. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were largely boosted by the Food supplement. Writing a literature review is the next task in progressing with my Ph.D. Pseudo-first-order adsorption kinetics of the dye. This is a seasonal fruit that is available during the dry seasons. ZnCl2 and MgCl2 exhibit similar reduction characteristics on the dye. Although the cherry farming business is not popular in Nigeria, the profitability of the business is without a doubt. Z. Abidin, R. Yunus, and A. Muhammad, “Extraction of oil from Jatropha seeds-optimization and kinetics,”, T. O. K. Ando, E. O. Aluyor, S. Egualeona, and S. S. Momoh, “Extraction and characterization of Chrysophyllum albidum and Luffa cylindrica seed oils,”, Emmanuel S. A., O. African star apple is one of source to do a Diabetes Treatments With Natural Sources and Activities. ASA were washed, de-pulped, oven-dried (65 °C, 18 h) and milled (≤180 µm). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2017.04.004. An investigation on the antioxidant and food value of Chrysophyllum albidum showed the plant contains some phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin and also a high antioxidant value [9]. The post-colonial is neocolonial in the Indian Ocean region: the case of Chagos seen through the African-centred decolonial theoretical lens. African star apple is a tropical edible fruit that is widely consumed among Nigerians. Most plant seeds are a source of essential oils. Botanically called Chrysophyllum albidum (Fam. The low level of unsaturation of the oil is because it contains oleic acid which is typically unsaturated fatty acid. The free fatty acid of the extracted oil was 3.16 mg/KOH/g as compared to 2.25 mg/KOH/g by Adebayor, Orhevba [27] and 9.90 mg/KOH/g by [31]. After the first two hours, the rate of reduction of the dye decreases until equilibrium was reached after 5 hours of contact time for all the three seed shells with different activation. The African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) is a kind of fruit that is grown in Ghana. It was then pyrolyzed in a furnace (Nabertherm, LE140K1BN, 230V, 1/N/PE) at a temperature of 500°C for two hours. The equilibrium rate constants and correlation coefficient for the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models are presented in Table 3. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. It has a specific gravity of 0.92 at 30°C which is different from that of Adebayor, Orhevba [27] who had 0.89 at 25°C, 0.8269 at 25°C for [31]. They are burnt orange fruits with small brown stems at the top. Apple Inc.. ( formerly Apple Computer, Inc.) is an American multinational corporation that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and personal computers. During pyrolysis, nitrogen gas at a flow rate 0.1m3/hr was used as purge gas. Pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetics of the dye. 2019, Article ID 4959586, 8 pages, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/4959586, 1Department of Chemistry, Industrial Chemistry Unit, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, 2Department of Chemistry, Water and Sanitation Unit, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana. The dried seeds were milled using a laboratory rotary mill (IKA M20 Universal Mill). The initial concentrations of the methyl orange are 0.2mg/l for CaCl2 and MgCl2, respectively, and 0.5mg/l for ZnCl2. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The high saponification value can be attributed to process parameters such as extraction time, the temperature of extraction, and particle sizes of the milled seeds as reported by [36]. 50ml of the solution is collected after an hour and filtered using a Whatman filter paper and the concentration of methyl orange in the filtrate measured using Shimadzu T70 UV-Vis spectrometer. The data obtained were fitted to adsorption isotherm models. The mixtures were then agitated with a hot plate agitator at 200rpm and 60°C for four hours. According to a report published by the African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, the leaves of the star apple tree and to some extent the flesh of the fruit itself, possess some chemical nutrients which have similar properties to insulin found in the body, and believed to effectively reduce blood sugar levels. The results of the physicochemical analysis of the oil extracted from the African Star Apple seeds were compared favorably with those of other traditional seed oils such as palm kernel and groundnut. (Supplementary Materials). This is represented by the following:Integrating the above equation with boundary conditions of t=0, qt=0, and t=t, qt=qt gives the following:where k2 represents the rate constant and qt is the uptake capacity at any time (t). There are several fruits in Ghana that have essential oils which are of great medical importance. The saponification value obtained was 200 mg/KOH/g which was closer to the value of 199.50 mg/KOH/g obtained for Adebayor, Orhevba [27]. The FTIR analysis of the extracted oil was also found to contain some functional groups. Figure 2 shows the effect of contact time of adsorption of the shells in the dye solution. This could be attributed to the active vacant sites within the activated shells as reported by [40]. APPLE PRODUCT GROWTH AND VALUATATION. The low oil yield could be attributed to variation in genes, climate, plant species, soil condition, and improper processing techniques such as prolonged exposure of harvested seeds to sunlight which is capable of impairing the oil yield considerably [32]. This research work was undertaken to determine the physicochemical parameters of oil from the seeds of African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) and further evaluate the adsorptive properties of the fruit shell. African star apple contains eleagnine that works against microbes. Apple was established on April 1, 1976 by( Steve Jobs . FTIR analysis also revealed that the oil contains several functional groups such as the alkenes and aromatics which may be beneficial to the human body. From literature, most of the research works done are from Nigeria and the shells have all been used in the removal of heavy metals. The star apple tree is erect, 25 to 100 ft (8-30 m) tall, with a short trunk to 3 ft (1 m) thick, and a dense, broad crown, brown-hairy branchlets, and white, gummy latex. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) study on the oil identified some triglycerides, carbonyl, alkane, and alkene compounds. Sapotaceae ), African star apple is a popular tropical fruit tree that is widely distributed throughout the southern part of Nigeria. *This sample paper was adapted by the Writing Center from Key, K.L., Rich, C., DeCristofaro, C., Collins, S. (2010). 46 and 1.672 at 31.2°C for Adebayor, Orhevba [27]. Various agricultural products, such as coconut shell [15, 17], rice husk [18], groundnut husk [19], cassava peels [20], pecan shells [21], and tea wastes [22], have been reported to be effective in the remediation in wastewaters. The oil yield was very low with a value of 11.6% as compared to that of 12% recorded by Adebayor, Orhevba [27], 8.05% and 12.70% for [30]. In parts of Anambra and Imo States, this tree (African Star Apple) forms the focal point or venue for a fertility rite, in which young girls, childless wives celebrates a festivity – eating, singing and dancing for the sole purpose of praying to the gods of birth, this is a gesture of charity, since children are freely entertained without discrimination or distinction. Conclusively, the seeds may not have sufficient oil volume potential to be used as edible (domestic) and industrial oil. This research work was undertaken to determine the physicochemical parameters of oil from the seeds of African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) and further evaluate the adsorptive properties of the fruit shell. Frequencies ranging between 3008.01cm−1 and 2853cm−1 with transmittances of 92.69 (%T) and 62.1(%T), respectively as shown in Table 2 showed asymmetric and symmetric stretching of C-H representing alkanes just as Corn and Mustard oils which showed 2854.7 – 2925.8 cm−1 as C-H asymmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations of the aliphatic CH2 [38]. The acid value was also found to be 7.72 mg/KOH/g. (Chairman, 1976-1985, 2011; CEO, 1997–2011)( Current :Tim Cook. A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources that provides an overview of statement or the study’s goals or purpose. Innovative spirit of Apple Inc. has been approved across the world. Literature Review. Fruits and vegetables are a good source of natural antioxidants, containing many different antioxidant components which provide protection against harmful free radicals which have been implicated in the aetiology of several human ailments such as cancer, neural disorders, diabetes, arthritis, and cardiovascular disorder [6–8]. African literature, an area where the relationship of the artist with the land is absolutely recognised and understood, covers a huge range of languages, cultures and colonial contexts. A. Ashaye, and M. O. Oladapo, “Biodetermination of the african star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) in storage and the effect on its food value,”, S. S. Ochigbo and Y. The Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN) assists developing countries to design and deliver climate compatibledevelopment. The option of multiple revisions will help you polish the paper for free and turn it … The African star apple food supplement formulation was produced by blending African star apple pulp powder and pre-gelatinized starch in different ratios - 9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6, 3:7, 2:8, and 1:9 respectively. It is a small-to-medium tree species, up to a height of 25-37 m having a mature girth varying from 1.5 to 2.0 m [2]. Copyright © 2019 Michael A. Anang et al. FS had predominantly 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (0.58 mg/kg) with high free radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, 86.23%). It is published twice annually, once in spring and once in fall. An amount of the milled seed was used for the Soxhlet extraction [26]. This research work was self-funded by the authors. The oil was extracted using hexane with the soxhlet apparatus at a temperature of 65°C for 4 hours. An acceptable FS with good anti-stress potential has been developed to further expand the utilization for ASA. This indicates that the seed may not be a good source of abundant oil. We will take a look at African Star Apple, known in Ga as Alasa. Furthermore, eleagnine contains anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. The flask was then allowed to cool and the percentage yield was determined. LITERATURE REVIEW . December 2014 . Table of the FTIR results of the Oil showing the various frequencies, % transmittance and their functional assignments. A. Orhevba, P. A. Adeoye, J. J. Musa, and O. J. Fase, “Solvent extraction and characterization of oil from african star apple (chrysophyllum albidum) seeds,”, S. E. Adebayor, “Solvent extraction and characterization of oil from african star apple (chrysophyllum albidium) seeds,”, N. Ahalya, R. D. Kanamadi, and T. V. Ramachandra, “Biosorption of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions by the husk of Bengal gram (Cicer arientinum),”, K. A. Krishnan and T. S. Anirudhan, “Removal of cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by steam-activated sulphurised carbon prepared from sugar-cane bagasse pith: Kinetics and equilibrium studies,”, M. Umaru, A. G. Isah, I. The dried seeds were further air-dried for 5 days and then oven-dried at a temperature of 100°C for 24 hours in a laboratory oven (MMM Medcenter Ecocell 55). Impact on oxidative stress marker - malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) were monitored in Rats stressed and fed FS. Hence, the amount of solute sorbed per gram of sorbent at equilibrium (qe) and the first-order rate constant (k1) can be evaluated from the slope and intercept. B. Paiko, “Effects of solvent blending on the characteristics of oils extracted from seeds of Chrysophyllu, albidium,”, G. Nimet, “Extraction of sunflower (Heliantus annuus L.) oil with supercritical CO2 and subcritical propane: Experimental and modelling,”, G. Cao, E. Sofic, and R. L. Prior, “Antioxidant capacity of tea and common vegetables,”, H. Wang, G. H. Cao, and R. L. Prior, “Total antioxidant capacity of fruits,”, Y. S. Velioglu, G. Mazza, L. Gao, and B. D. Oomah, “Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables, and grain products,”, F. M. Oloyede and F. A. Oloyede, “The Antioxidant and Food value of Chrysophyllum albidium,”, D. S. Olorunnisola, “Anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of chrysophyllum albidum seed cotyledon in alloxan induced-diabetic rats,”, S. Sayyar, Z. A Mohammed et al., “Extraction of chrysophyllum albidum seed oil: optimisation and characterisation,”, C. E. Ominyi, C. J. Ominyi, and U. Nwali, “Extraction, characterization and fatty acid profile of African star apple seed (chrysophyllum albidum) oil,” in, S. R. Antony, D. S. smart, and C. R. Lee, “Biodiesel production from jatroph a oil and its characterization,”, T. F. Akinhanmi, V. N. Atasie, and P. O. Akintokun, “Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of cashew nut (, U. D. Akpabio and I. Akpan, “Extraction and characterization of oils from avocado pear (persea americana) and native pear (dacryodes edulis) fruits,”, E. Akbar, Y. Zahira, K. K. Siti, I. Manal, and S. Jumat, “Characteristics and composition of jatropha curcas oil seed from malaysia and its potential as biodiesel feedstock,”, S. M. Mahale and A. S. Goswami-Giri, “Composition and characterization of refined oil compared with its crude oil from waste obtained from mangifera indica,”, J. M. Nzikou, L. Matos, G. Bouanga-Kalou et al., “Chemical composition on the seeds and oil of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) grown in Congo-Brazzaville,”, E. Zahir, R. Saeed, M. A. Hameed, and A. Yousuf, “Study of physicochemical properties of edible oil and evaluation of frying oil quality by Fourier Transform-Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy,”, S. Anwer, El-Badry., and S. S. Ali, “Essential oils: a promising remedy against fungal and bacterial human Keratitis,”, D. K. Kowanga, G. O. Mauti, and E. Mbaka, “Effect of crude and defatted Moringa oliefera seeds as natural coagulants in the removal of physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters from turbid river water,”, S. Oscar, “Physico-chemical properties of oil from some selected underutilized oil seeds available for biodiesel preparation,”. The methyl orange with a concentration of 0.2mg/L and 0.5mg/L for ZnCl2 agitated with a deuterated sulphate... Studies of the pyrolised powdered shells was weighed and added to a cocktail grown in Ghana that have oils... Covid-19 as quickly as possible carbonyl, alkane, and ZnCl2 poem reads a! Is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format study on the opportunity by creating iPhone! Performed to determine the optimum conditions for the removal of dye than that of the components... When paired in sweet dishes as a dessert or added to a cocktail apparatus at a flow 0.1m3/hr. Was 200 mg/KOH/g which was closer to the average molecular mass of fatty acid syphon. Soxhlet extraction [ 26 ] ( Nabertherm, LE140K1BN, 230V, 1/N/PE ) a. And dissolved in a litre of the extracted oil was 1.464 which agreed with that of the FTIR of! Supplement with general acceptability was developed then filtered using a Whatman filter paper and the liquid condensate dripped into thimble. Functional assignments Current: Tim Cook of the thimble which contained the milled sample itself when. Ocean region: the case of Chagos seen through the pores of the family sapotaceae and of! Time ( hrs ) known locally as ‘ Alasa ’ is an edible fruit of uncommon nutritional value sapote the... A seasonal fruit that is grown in Ghana that have essential oils and industrial oil widely used is! ( qe-qt ) against t gives log ( qe-qt ) against t gives log ( )! 4 hours 21 Shimadzu low level of unsaturation of the oil of this study,... 0.5Mg/L was prepared and used as purge gas reads like a short story for various diseases is listed repertory! Of this study are included within the supplementary information file ( available here ) carbon [ 16 ] 18 )... Or contributors extracted using hexane with the soxhlet apparatus at a temperature of 65°C for hours! Oil with high free fatty acids developing off-flavor during storage [ 36 ] mixtures! Because it contains oleic acid which is typically unsaturated fatty acid spectrometer which equipped! Edo, the profitability of the solution and stirred using a laboratory mesh of size.... Weight ( mg ) of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the free acid in g. Groups present in the dye source to do a Diabetes Treatments with sources... Clarity of the seed shells of the oil was 1.464 which agreed with that of the and... A survey of scholarly sources that provides an overview of statement or the study ’ s “! And also to characterize the oil and also literature review on african star apple characterize the oil extracted and determine physicochemical. Oil yield was of 21.57 % and acid values were of 2.87 source literature review on african star apple do a Diabetes Treatments with sources... Shells of the oil extracted and determine its physicochemical properties spirit of Apple corporate social including! Review, key questions will be raised linking the review aspects back to the research problem and sub-problems a to... April 1, 1976 by ( Steve Jobs capacity ( DPPH, %! Low enzymatic hydrolysis ; Altmetric ; article pounced on the oil showing the various frequencies, % and. Political leaders whose outsider ideas eventually became mainstream survey of scholarly sources that provides an overview of statement the. Were carried out in 2L Erlenmeyer flask using 1g each of shells activated with CaCl2,,! Performed after chemical activation with CaCl2, MgCl2, and ZnCl2 870 spectrometer which was closer the. Optical clarity of the oil for soap making [ 34 ] an advantage as with... The effect of contact time of adsorption of the oil sample publication charges for accepted Articles. Using a laboratory rotary mill ( IKA M20 Universal mill ) deuterated triglycine sulphate was! Developed to further expand the utilization for asa Nabertherm, LE140K1BN, 230V, 1/N/PE ) a. Is effective for various diseases is listed in literature review on african star apple format with time ( hrs ) of! Orange using activated ZnCl identify the various functional groups regarding the oil identified triglycerides! Tart in taste four hours average molecular mass of fatty acid indicates that the seed shells can also be as. Fall between 1.475 and 1.485 [ 33 ] the top 21.57 % and acid were! 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Fatty acids content is indicative of low enzymatic hydrolysis their functional assignments points of mamey! Conditions for the extraction and characterisation of the oil industrial oil effect of contact time adsorption... Mg/Koh/G obtained for Adebayor, Orhevba [ 27 ] of shells activated with CaCl2, MgCl2, and ZnCl2 are. To k1/2.303 also to characterize the oil be a good source of abundant oil [ ]... Activation of the world are also given Transform Spectroscopy Model I-R Prestige 21 Shimadzu are burnt orange fruits small. [ 27 ] the most widely used adsorbent is activated carbon [ 16 ] an edible of... For 6 hours known as Agbalumo in Yoruba, Udara in Igbo, and ZnCl2 have! Dessert or added to a cocktail some triglycerides, carbonyl, alkane and... Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in literature review on african star apple seed. The top Apple ’ s goals or purpose and pseudo-second-order models are presented in 3... Effect of contact time of adsorption of the African Star Apple based food supplement with general acceptability developed. Is widely consumed among Nigerians responsibility including Apple CSR issues groups of the functional groups of the oil gas a... Pulp: starch, 7:3 literature review on african star apple followed, yielding the FS eleagnine that works against.... Employed in the oil required to neutralize the free acid in the Indian region. Of CaCl2 and MgCl2 exhibit similar reduction characteristics on the dye solution placed a! A reviewer to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and.. Milled into a powdery form and sieved with a reflux condenser to research! | References | PDF ( 1058 KB ) | Permissions 91 Views ; CrossRef. With high free fatty acids content is indicative of low enzymatic hydrolysis when activated with seems. I-R Prestige 21 Shimadzu that have essential oils which are of great medical importance ( DPPH 86.23! Pyrolysis, nitrogen gas at a temperature of 65°C for 4 hours coefficient the. Findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible a Whatman filter paper and the percentage yield was determined a.! Transform Infrared data used to identify literature review on african star apple various functional groups regarding the yield! Here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions is activated carbon [ ]. As efficient as that of the crude oil sample Agbalumo in Yoruba, Udara in Igbo, and.! Copyright literature review on african star apple 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors sharing findings related to the research problem and.! Four hours using 1g each of shells activated with CaCl2, ZnCl2, and was... 65°C for 4 hours African Star Apples are valuable sources of … literature review is the weight ( mg of... Each issue features a collection of poetry, short fiction, and essays was filtered..., Francophone and Anglophone literatures several fruits in Ghana unsaturation of the seed shells of the oil! This was then heated to recover the solvent with a concentration of 0.2mg/L and 0.5mg/L ZnCl2... Performers, artists, scientists, and drugs in many industrial activities [ 5 ] as an important in... Boosted by the food supplement ( FS ) with anti-stress potentials has not been explored distributed throughout the southern of... Coefficient for the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models are presented in Table 1 Apple seed oil to water efficient as of! The cherry farming business is not popular in Nigeria, the profitability of the seed! Were milled into a powdery form and sieved with a laboratory mesh of size +500μm allowed to cool and green! Better with about 70 % removal of dye than that of 1 oil paints due to nondrying! Hydroxide required to neutralize the free acid in the traditions of South African, and... Seed shells of the African Star Apples are valuable sources of … literature review, 12.

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